- July 4, 2012
- Antenna diversity, Dick Laine, diversity arrangements, frequency diversity, Microwave transmission, protection schemes, Radio frequency, Radio Head, Radio Head Technology Series, Space Diversity, wireless
The BT Thornhill microwave radio tower above demonstrates a Space Diversity protection scheme with its parabolic antennas placed apart from one another (Photo credit: Peter Facey via Wikipedia)
Traffic disconnect is unacceptable for most microwave systems, especially for homeland security and utilities. But Aviat Networks Principal Engineer Dick Laine says that it is economically unviable to have a microwave radio system that provides absolutely 100 percent uptime to accommodate every possible traffic downtime scenario. He adds that towers, waveguides and all other hardware and infrastructure would have to be completely bulletproof. This is true of every telecommunication system.
However, with protection schemes and diversity arrangements in today’s wireless communication solutions, microwave transmission can get very close to mitigating against long-term traffic outages (i.e., > 10 CSES, consecutive severely errored seconds) and short-term traffic outages (i.e., < 10 CSES).
In pursuit of the 100 percent uptime goal, Dick goes over many of the strategies available in the newest video in the Radio Head Technology Series, for which there is complimentary registration. For example, there are many approaches to protection, including Hot Standby and Space Diversity. In particular, Dick points out Frequency Diversity has advantages over many protection schemes, but few outside the federal government are able to obtain the necessary waivers in order to use it. Hybrid Diversity uses both Space Diversity and Frequency Diversity to create a very strong protection solution. A case study outlining Hybrid Diversity is available.
Other concepts Dick covers in this fifth edition of Radio Heads includes error performance objectives, bit error rate, data throughput, errorless switching, equipment degradation, antenna misalignment, self-healing ring architecture and something called the “Chicken Little” alarm.
- Is 100% uptime really possible? (xaprb.com)
- 100% uptime, always-on, always-available services … and other tall tales (zdnet.com)
- Intel Buys £240 Million Of InterDigital’s Wireless Patents (techweekeurope.co.uk)
- 3 Models for Microwave Link Error Performance? Laine Explains (aviatnetworks.com)
- Dick Laine’s 4 Keys to Successful Transmission Engineering of Microwave Links (aviatnetworks.com)
- June 12, 2012
- Atlantic Ocean, Aviat Networks, Belize, frequency diversity, Honduras, hybrid diversity, Internet Protocol, microwave, Microwave transmission, Space Diversity
Survey view from Belize toward Honduras, at 1000 m AMSL
Link between Honduras and Belize Crosses Water and Land
Last year I wrote about the world’s longest all-IP microwave link, stretching 193 km over the Atlantic Ocean in Honduras. Aviat Networks and Telecomunicaciones y Sistemas S.A. (TELSSA) designed and implemented this link together. This year, Aviat Networks and TELSSA again worked together to build another link and achieve another record—an Eclipse microwave link between Honduras and Belize that crosses 75 km of the Atlantic Ocean and 105 km of rugged terrain for a total path length of 180 km. This is a new world record for a hybrid diversity microwave link!
After the success of implementing the 193km link over water, Aviat Networks and TELSSA were eager to meet the challenge to connect Honduras and the neighboring nation of Belize using a single microwave link. Aviat Networks network engineers and TELSSA engineers were able to use their extensive knowledge of local propagation conditions, thorough understanding of long path design principles and precise installation practices to successfully implement this 180km microwave link.
Long Path Design Considerations
As outlined in the article last year for the longest all-IP hop, a deep understanding of path design considerations and experience in microwave transmission path design are necessary to successfully complete a long path design. Key considerations involved:
- The effect of antenna diameter on highly refractive paths
- Precise alignment of the antennas to mitigate the effect of refractivity
- Optimum RF and space diversity spacing to counter elevated divergent dielectric layers
- Deterministic prediction of the variations of atmospheric conditions
- Multi-path propagation delay
To read more about this world-record Hybrid Diversity IP microwave link, download the full article.
Senior Network Engineer